Vern & Bonnie Bullough, Sin, Sickness, and Sanity: A History of Sexual Attitudes (1977), Meridian Books, Chapter 5, p. 60, 68.

Hoag Levins, American Sex Machines, The Hidden History of Sex at The US Patent Office (1996), Adams Media Corporation, Chapter 2, p. 15.

Rene Spitz, "Authority and Masturbation", The Psychoanalytic Quarterly Vol. 21 (1952), p. 499, 502, 504-505.

E.H. Hare, "Masturbatory Insanity: The History of An Idea", The Journal of Mental Science Vol. 108, No. 452 (January 1962), p. 10-11.

Robert Darby, "The Masturbation Taboo and the Rise of Routine Male Circumcision: A Review of the Historiography," Journal of Social History Vol. 36, Issue 3 (Spring 2003), p. 741-742.

Campbell Clark and Henry Clark, "Neurectomy: A Preventive of Masturbation," The Lancet (Sept. 23, 1899).

Timothy Haynes, “Surgical Treatment of Hopeless Cases of Masturbation and Nocturnal Emissions,” The Boston Medical and Surgical Journal (August 9, 1883), p. 130.